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How Do Electric Bike Engines Work?


Black Ebike battery

Electric bikes have transformed modern urban transportation, and at the heart of their functioning is an electric motor—an essential component that converts electricity into propulsion. 


Today, the standard engine used in electric bikes includes brushless DC motors (BLDC), which use energized coils and permanent magnets for improved efficiency and durability. Learn more about how electric bikes work to understand their role in powering us into an eco-friendly future.


How Does an E-Bike Engine Work?

An electric bike engine is part of a complete power system to propel the bike forward. An electric bike engine, commonly known as a motor, is the central component of the e-bike power system responsible for propelling the bike forward. It works by converting electrical energy from the battery into mechanical power to drive the wheels. 


The motor's operation is typically controlled by a system that senses the rider's input, such as a throttle or a pedal-assist sensor, which determines the level of assistance required and adjusts the motor's output accordingly. This way, riders can enjoy varying levels of pedal assistance or even rely solely on the motor's power for propulsion, making e-bikes an efficient and eco-friendly mode of transportation. The components of an e-bike power system include:


Electric motor: The electric motor is the primary component responsible for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy to propel the e-bike forward. Various types of motors are used in electric bikes, including hub motors and mid-drive motors. These motors come in different power ratings and efficiencies, influencing the overall performance and speed capabilities of the e-bike.


Battery: The battery stores and supplies electrical energy to the motor. Lithium-ion batteries are typically used due to their high energy density, lightweight design, and long lifespan. The capacity and range of the battery are important considerations when choosing an e-bike. Higher-capacity batteries can provide a longer range before recharging, allowing riders to travel further.


Controller: The controller acts as the brain of the e-bike, regulating the flow of electricity and controlling the motor’s speed and performance. The controller also incorporates features and functions such as throttle control, pedal assist levels, and regenerative braking, enhancing the riding experience and providing options for customization.


How Motors Work With the Rest of the E-Bike?

Pedal-assisted e-bikes require the rider to start pedaling before the motor kicks in. The bike’s cadence or torque sensors detect when the rider has input enough force and momentum to start the motor. 


Once the rider has reached the requisite speed, the battery switches on to deliver energy to the BLDC motor. The motor converts the electricity from the battery into mechanical energy through the interaction of magnets and coils within the motor. The magnets create a magnetic field, while the coils, or windings, generate an electromagnetic field. 


When an electric current passes through the coils, it interacts with the magnetic field, generating rotational force. This force drives the motion of the motor, accelerating the e-bike and allowing for a smooth and powerful ride.





The Different Types of Motors

E-bikes use different types of motors to provide power and propulsion. There are two main types of motors: mid-drive and hub. Understanding the characteristics and differences between these motor types is crucial in choosing the right electric bike for your needs.


Mid-drive motors: Mid-drive brushless motors, like those found in Yamaha electric bikes, are located on the bottom bracket of the bike frame, connected to the drivetrain. This placement allows for efficient power transfer and optimal weight distribution. Mid-drive motors provide excellent torque and are well-suited for hilly terrains or off-road adventures. However, they tend to be more expensive and require more maintenance because of their complex design.


Hub motors: Hub motors are brushless motors integrated into the wheel hub in the front or rear. They offer a simpler and more affordable motor option. Hub motors, like those found in Aventon electric bikes, offer direct drive functionality, eliminating the need for a chain or gears. This design ensures a smooth ride while also reducing maintenance requirements. However, they can be heavier, affecting the bike’s handling and maneuverability.


Direct-Drive Hub Motors vs. Geared Hub Motors

Direct-drive hub motors operate by directly connecting the motor to the wheel hub, eliminating the need for gears. Direct-drive hub motors are known for their simplicity and durability. However, one drawback of direct-drive hub motors is their relatively larger size and weight, which can affect the overall handling and maneuverability of the bike.

Geared hub motors are also a brushless type of motor, but they use a system of gears to transfer power from the motor to the wheel hub rather than magnets. These motors are more compact and lightweight than direct-drive hub motors, making them ideal for use on electric bikes. Geared hub motors offer higher torque, efficient power delivery, and better hill-climbing capabilities. 

At Upway, you’ll find a range of refurbished electric bikes with various types of motors. E-Bikes like the Trek Powerfly FS 4, Bianchi E-Omnia X-Type, and the Specialized Turbo Levo Comp all come with a mid-drive motor, offering exceptional handling and balance. 

We also carry bikes with direct-drive rear hub motors, such as the Pedego City Commuter, Aventon Aventure 2 Step Through, and the Orbea Gain M20. The position of these motors allows the bikes to have a relaxed geometry for a more comfortable ride, ideal for city commuting. 


Find Your Ideal E-Bike at Upway

If you are wondering should I get an electric bike, knowing how an e-bike works can help make your decision easier. At Upway, we offer a wide range of pre-owned affordable electric bikes from top brands, including Giant, Gazelle, and Specialized electric bikes. Whether you need the convenience of foldable electric bikes for easy storage and transportation or a rugged electric mountain bike for your outdoor adventures, we have a bike to suit your needs. 

Explore our selection of used electric bikes and start your journey towards unforgettable experiences.  

Ready to choose?

Upway offers the widest range of certified pre-owned electric bikes, reconditioned by professional mechanics. Thanks to Upway, you'll get a great electric bike at a price that's 20-60% off retail, with a one-year warranty!